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Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) | Prevention | QuadBloggers

ByDanish syed

Nov 24, 2021 , ,
Human Papilloma Virus

Human Papilloma Virus ( HPV ) is a condition that causes diseases in humans ranging from common warts to cervical cancer.

  • Non-enveloped and
  • double stranded DNA viruses.
  • Furthermore, there are 125 HPV different types.
  • Accordingly, each of them are specific for there particular clinical manifestations.
  • Example:
    • Additionally, causes of genital warts are:
      • HPV 11 and 6
      • HPV 16 and 18 all in all.
Human Papilloma Virus

Clinical manifestations for Human Papilloma Virus:

  • Human Papilloma Virus transmitted by sexual intercourse , oral sex and by physical contact to genitalia that leads to spread of the virus.
  • It takes > 20 years for knowing the exact ratio between initial progression of the disease to diagnosis of HPV associated cancer, with HIV accelerating the process of progression of the disease.
  • Appearance of warts takes place in different anatomical locations frequently, ranging from whitish, soft papules on the vulva to raised, keratotic and pigmented plaques on the penis.
  • Patients that are suffering from cervical carcinoma present with erosions of carcinoma that occur early and bleed easily

Others:

  • Chronic carcinoma presents with advanced features of ulcerated lesions or as an exophytic lesion also.
  • In cases of anal cancer, it presents with rectal bleeding and pain or a mass sensation on the whole.
  • Furthermore, Usually 20% of the population are asymptomatic.

Diagnosis for Human Papilloma Virus:

  • Human Papilloma Virus can be diagnosed additionally by certain methods as illustrated by:
    • History and physical examination for visible warts.
    • Additionally, cytology method- pap smear every 3 years as primary method.
      • For screening cervical cancer.
    • For women aged > 30 years:
      • The testing interval increased by 5 years if co-testing for HPV DNA is negative.
    • For high-risk groups , anal screening employed.

Treatment for Human Papilloma Virus:

  • Most of the lesions resolve spontaneously without any need of topic or oral medication.
  • The current treatment is not extremely effective and can further cause acute side effects as well.
  • Administered therapy employed:
    • Cryotherapy
    • Surgical excision
    • Intralesionally administered IFN
    • Laser surgery

Creams:

  • Topical creams employed:
    • Imiquimod contains 5% or 3.75% cream
    • Applied 3 times per week for up to 16 weeks.
    • Podophyllotoxin that contains 0.05% solution or gel or 0.15% gel.
    • Sinecatechins that contains 15% ointment.
    • Furthermore, these 3 topical creams or gels are used for the treatment of external genital warts, but other modalities are better tolerated and are effective.

Prevention of Human Papilloma Virus:

  • Prevention of Human Papilloma Virus is vital is preventing the spread and causality of the disease.
  • Certain vaccination methods are being employed significantly across the world to prevent the spread of the disease at an early stage and to destroy the viruses.

Vaccine administration for Human Papilloma Virus:

  • Vaccine:
    • A quadrivalent vaccine ( Gardasil , Merck ) containing HPV types 6 , 11 , 16 , and 18.
    • A nine valent vaccine ( Gardasil-9 , Merck ) containing types HPV 6 , 11 , 16 , 18 , 31 , 33 , 45 , 52 and 58.
    • Additionally , a bivalent vaccine ( Cervarix , GlaxoSmithKline ) containing types HPV 16 and 18 are employed respectively.
  • Furthermore, Vaccine administration has been employed to all boys and girls of age 11-12 years.
  • Moreover, young men and women of age 13 to 26 years old who have not previously completed the full series.
  • For instance, Using of condoms and dental dams every single time when you engage in oral, vaginal or anal sex, as safer sex can always reduce the incidence of Human Papilloma Virus.
  • Encourage your partner to get the HPV vaccine as its safer bet to safeguard from the disease
  • Spread awareness and educate the people around you about the incidence an spread of the disease and its adverse effects in the future.

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Additionally, Please refer this book for different diseases: Harrisons book of internal medicine

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