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Injuries and Accidents | Things you need to know | QuadBloggers

Injuries and Accidents

Injuries and Accidents are two of the common terms that describe various ailments that affect ones ability.

How do you describe an injury( Injuries and Accidents ) ?

  • An injury is any harm, whatever illegally caused to any individual of mind, body, property or reputation.
  • A break in the natural continuity of tissues all in all.

What are the types of injuries( Injuries and Accidents ) ?

A) Mechanical injury:

  • Due to sharp force
  • Chop wounds
  • Stab wounds
  • Abrasion
  • Contusion
  • Laceration

B) Chemical injury:

  • Acids
  • Alkali

C) Thermal injury:

  • Heat
  • Burns
  • Frostbite

D) Others:

  • Electricity
  • X-ray
  • Lightening
  • Explosions

How do you describe important injuries ?

1) Abrasions:

  • Defined by destruction of the superficial layer of the skin.
  • Furthermore, it is caused by friction or compression against a rough surface area.
  • Characteristics of an abrasion:
    • Bleed slightly
    • No scar formation seen
    • Heals rapidly
  • Types of abrasions :
    • Scratches
    • Grazes- Movement between skin with contact from a rough surface
    • Pressure abrasion – Caused due to crushing of superficial layers of the skin
    • Impact abrasion- Caused due to a force with a rough object or surface
    • Patterned abrasion
  • Age and time:
    • A fresh abrasion is bright red in color
    • Stays from 12 to 24 hours
    • Forms a scab due to drying of blood and lymph
    • After a period of 2 to 4 days simultaneously it turns reddish brown scab
    • After a period of 5 to 7 days it turns dark brown to black scab
    • Additionally, the scab falls off and dries after 7 days

2) Contusion:

  • It occurs due to rupture of blood vessels which leads to leaking of blood into the tissues
  • Furthermore, caused by trauma like stone, fist, whip, bar, hammer and more
  • Location:
    • Contusions occur not only in the skin, but also internal organs like lungs, brain, muscles and heart
  • Characteristics of a contusion:
    • Swelling that’s painful
    • Tearing sensation of tissues with no involvement of skin damage
    • Bruises, all in all
  • Factors that alter size and shape:
    • Women bruise quite easily when compared to men because of increased superficial fat
    • Children are more prone to bruises due to soft and loose tissues
    • Diseased stage of vessels lead to bruises
  • Complications:
    • Shock
    • Internal hemorrhage
    • Gangrene and death of tissue

3) Lacerations:

  • Lacerations are tear in the skin, mucous membranes or internal organs caused by a blunt force
  • When a blunt force is acted upon the body, it leads to displacement of the tissues
  • Causes:
    • Blows by a blunt object or fall from an object
    • Contused lacerations are caused simultaneously due force that leads to spreading of the blood to adjacent tissues.
  • Types:
    • 1) Split lacerations:
      • Crushing of the skin occurring in between 2 hard objects that results in splitting
    • 2) Stretch lacerations:
      • Overstretching of the skin when fixed
    • 3) Avulsion:
      • Laceration produced by sufficient force
    • 4) Tears:
      • Tearing of the skin or soft tissue due to an impact from sharp objects
    • 5) Cut lacerations:
      • Sharp edged objects such as axe leads to cut lacerations
      • Margins of cut lacerations are irregular, blunt, uneven
Injuries and Accidents

4) Wounds (Injuries and Accidents):

  • It is caused by a mechanical force which may be a moving object or weapon

A) Incised wound:

  • A clean cut simultaneously, caused through the tissues including the skin and blood vessels by a sharp edged object.
  • Characteristics:
    • Edges are clean cut, everted and well defined hence appear incised.
    • Hemorrhage is more commonly seen
    • Width is greater than the thickness of the edge of the weapon for an incised wound
    • Oblique cut occurs when a weapon cute through the skin obliquely leading to incised wound.
    • Incised wounds usually appear spindle shaped all in all
  • Age of incised wound:
    • Incised wounds appear in about 12 to 24 hours
    • Additionally, Edges appear red, swollen with inflammation
    • Scab of dried clot is seen

B) Suicidal wounds (Injuries and Accidents):

  • These wounds occur in the left side of the neck, passing through the front of the throat hence affecting one part of neck.
  • Simultaneously, Edges usually ragged affecting the superficial layers
  • Meanwhile, Multiple wounds mite be seen around 20 to 40 wounds
  • Usually less severe
  • Additionally, Carotid artery is usually saved from injury
  • Wounds usually occurs above the thyroid cartilage

C) Homicidal wounds:

  • Affects the neck passing through the throat and both sides
  • Additionally, Wound usually occurs below the thyroid cartilage
  • Simultaneously, Multiple wounds occur
  • Meanwhile, Wounds are sharp and clean with oblique cuts are seen
  • Carotid artery and jugular veins usually cut all in all

D) Stab wounds:

  • A stab wound is produced from the sharp edge of the knife or sword into the body
  • Wound is deeper than the width and length on the skin
  • Types:
    • Puncture wounds
    • Perforating wounds
    • Penetrating wounds
  • Characteristics of the wound:
    • The wound edges, usually clean cut and inverted.
    • Abrasions and bruising meanwhile produced when the knife enters the body thereby tearing and crushing the tissues

Furthermore, For more details please read this book : Essentials of forensic medicine

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